Books / E-BooksJournal ArticlesNewspapersInternet / WebsitesLecture NotesThesesLegislationConference ProceedingsPersonal CommunicationMulti-Media FormatsCompany InformationPatents and StandardsEncyclopedia EntriesImage/Photograph/Table/Artwork
All printable PDF pagesMain Examples
This is the "Introduction to Harvard Referencing" page of the "Harvard" guide.
Alternate Page for Screenreader Users
Skip to Page Navigation
Skip to Page Content

Last Updated: Nov 1, 2015 URL: Print Guide RSS UpdatesEmail Alerts

Introduction to Harvard Referencing Print Page

In this Guide...


Before you write your reference list or bibliography, check with your lecturer/tutor which style they prefer you to use and refer to the instructions included with your assignment.

If you are importing or copying citations from Reference Management Tools (such as EndNote and RefWorks), Databases, or Library Search results, you may need to modify the references to conform to the Harvard Style as set out in this guide.

This guide is based on the Harvard or author - date style presented in :

Style manual for authors, editors and printers 2002, 6th edn, AGPS, Canberra, ACT.

  • 1, 2 or More Authors
  • No Author
  • Editor
  • Chapters in Books
  • Translator and Author
  • Organisation as Author
  • E-book
  • Kindle book
  • Multiple works same author
  • Print (and from electronic database, VU Collaborate or e-reserve)
  • 1, 2 or More Authors
  • Print (and from electronic database, VU Collaborate or e-reserve)
  • Website
  • No Author
  • Section
  • Media Release
  • Website
  • No Author
  • No Date
  • Web Document
  • Blog
  • Computer Software
  • Web Image
  • Print (and from electronic database, VU Collaborate or e-reserve)
  • Unpublished
  • Published
  • Online
  • Acts/Statutes
  • Bills
  • Cases
  • Online
  • Printed
  • Unpublished
  • Proceedings
  • Email
  • Interview
  • Letter
  • Telephone Call
  • Streaming Video
  • Television Programme
  • Audio Podcast
  • Video Podcast
  • Music Track from an Album
  • Blog Post
  • Company Report
  • Annual Report
  • Company Profile
  • Financial Data
  • Industry Report
  • Print
  • Electronic Database
  • A table of examples in all formats for quick reference

Sample In-Text References


    Getting Started

    There are two components to referencing in the Harvard style: in-text references in your paper and the reference list at the end of your paper.

    The in-text reference:

    All sources of information must be acknowledged in the text of your paper.

    In the Harvard  'author/date' style an in-text reference consists of family name of the author/authors or name of the authoring body and year of publication.  

    In-text reference will consist of:


    If you quote directly from an author or to cite a specific idea or piece of information from the source, you need to include the page number of the quote in your in-text reference.


    The reference list:

    All in-text references should be listed in the reference list at the end of your document.   

    Reference list entry for a book


    Reference list entry for a journal article


    Reference list entries contain all the information that someone needs to follow up your source. Reference lists in Harvard are arranged alphabetically by author. If there is no author, use the title of the resource.


    In-text references

    In-text references are placed in parentheses (brackets) at the end of a sentence, before the concluding punctuation.

    A daily walk can help prevent heart disease (Brill 2011).

    A student's aspirations and attitudes are influenced by 'the interplay of class alongside other equally important factors including for example, gender, ethnicity, levels of trust, self-confidence and self-identification' (Fuller 2011, p. 162).


    Where the citation refers to only part of a sentence it should be placed at the end of the phrase to which it relates.

    When the name of the author is part of the sentence, only the date (and page number for direct quotes) is required. The in-text reference is placed in parentheses (brackets) immediately following the author's surname.

    According to Cant (2010, p. 82), 'undernutrition in hospital patients is a condition that requires serious examination'.

    Cant (2010) suggests that there is a need for more research into the nutritional screening of patients.


    Two or more works referenced at one point in the text

    If two or more works by different authors or authoring bodies are referenced at one point in the text, use a semi-colon to separate them:

    (Larsen 2000; Malinowski 1999)

    The authors should be listed in alphabetical order.


    Two or three authors or authoring bodies

    When referencing a work by two or three authors or authoring bodies, cite the names in the order in which they appear on the title page:

    (Malinowski, Miller & Gupta 1995) 


    What if I want to reference some information that someone else has referenced?

    If you read an article or book which references some information that you want to reference, always refer to the source where you found the information, not the original source. For example:

    Sue reads an article by Alex Byrne in the Australian Library Journal in which he cites or refers to statements made by Tim O'Reilly on his website at Sue wants to refer to O'Reilly's statement in her assignment.

    Sue would acknowledge O'Reilly in her text but her reference is to the source where she saw the information. Sue might write as her in-text reference:

    (O'Reilly, cited in Byrne 2008)

    In her reference list Sue would write a reference for Byrne's article because that's where she sourced the information. The entry in her References would be:

    Byrne, A 2008, 'Web 2.0 strategies in libraries and information services', The Australian Library Journal, vol. 57 no. 4, pp. 365-376.


    Referencing and Plagiarism

    For general information on Referencing and Plagiarism please link to:

    Referencing and Plagiarism


    Loading  Loading...